In production systems, vine-kill terminates potato growth, triggers tuber maturation, and is the initiation of the storage season. During the interval between vine-kill and harvest, tubers are essentially stored in the field to allow important physiological processes to occur which promote good storability and quality. These physiological processes are dependent on environmental and genetic factors and a detailed understanding between these interactions will safeguard harvest quality. Unfortunately, quality will only decrease after harvest as the tuber progresses towards senescence. Use of controlled environmental storages delays senescence by slowing internal biological processes such as basal respiration and hormone interactions. While a century’s worth of research has resolved ideal storage conditions for commonly used varieties, a detailed understanding of physiological processes in storage will improve the successful adoption of new varieties and reduce the risk of emerging diseases. Furthermore, knowledge of best practices postharvest will support decisions around crop use and storage duration. Improved postharvest education has the potential to enhance economic returns and preserve food security while meeting consumer’s quality expectations.